How flour retains moisture, usually determined by measuring out the amount of liquid needed in order to make the dough the desired consistency, typically expressed in percentages.
A soaking technique used on grains, seeds, beans, and other ingredients with a very low phytase level in order to lower phytic acid while keeping the food’s pH level stable.
Acid ingredients have sour tastes and react with bases in order to form water and salts. They have a pH of less than 7.
Active Dry Yeast:
The type of yeast used to leaven bread, mostly used by home bakers. It is available as both quick and regular rising.
To whip or sift or beat air between particles, such as with confectioners sugar, flour, or butter and sugar.
A liquid sweetener made from the core of the agave plant. It has a low glycemic index.
A wheat flour milled from either hard wheat or a mix of hard and soft wheat with a medium protein content (10-12%). It can be used for almost any type of baking.
Adjustments may need to be made in baking at certain altitudes. For instance, baking temperature may need to be increased slightly, boiling may take longer, and flour may be dryer,
among many other factors.
An umbrella term for grains and pseudocereals that have been minimally changed over recent millennia, as opposed to other grains that have been altered by selective breeding, such as corn
Sugar substitutes that are non-nutritive, such as stevia.
A skilled baker who uses partly hand-made methods to produce baked goods.
This is the scientific name for Vitamin C, which is used for gluten development.
Combining water and flour in bread baking prior to adding other ingredients and kneading.
The French term for a water bath. Usually used to melt chocolate and butter gradually and gently over simmering water.
Cooking via dry heat in an oven. When used for meats, this is referred to as roasting.
This refers to 13, rather than 12. It’s believed to have originated as a way for bakers to avoid customers accusing them of short-charging.
Baker’s Percentage/Baker’s Math:
When baking formulas are based primarily on flour, the weight of each ingredient is measured by a percentage of the total weight of the flour.
A combination of pre-measured dry baking ingredients, such as sugar, flour, etc.
A pan used for baking, available in a wide variety of shapes and sizes.
A rising agent that produces carbon dioxide in the presence of heat and moisture, which allows for baked goods to rise.
A flat, rectangular pan used for baking flat foods, such as cookies.
A raising agent in baking. When it reacts with an acidic compound under heat, it acts as a leavening agent.
A flat stone used to bake food on in ovens, such as pizza and bread. It absorbs some of the moisture which results in a crisp and brown crust.
A flat bread made out of wheat flour or oatmeal, typically baked in an oven, or a skillet or griddle.
The amount of cookies, bread, and the like that can be made from one recipe without any alterations to the ingredients.
A mixture of ingredients, similar to dough, but with a much thinner consistency.
To stir together rapidly in order to incorporate air into the mixture. This can be done with a fork or whisk, as well as a food processor or electric mixer.
The junction at which 2 planes meet at an angle other than 90 degrees, or to create such an angle.
The technique for blending cold fat into flour, in order to achieve a flakey texture, as can be found with biscuits.
Flour that’s been oxidized using chemicals to achieve a flour that is ultra-white.
To mix 2 substances together so they incorporate well together.
The process of baking pastry shells separately from the filling, and then baking again briefly after setting the filling, if needed.
This is either:
● The activation of yeast
● The process of bread loaves opening along slashed marks
● The process of soaking gelatin in cold water before adding it to the recipe
To heat liquids until they reach a boiling point or to place something in a boiling liquid.
Weaving 3 or more long strands of dough together.
Cooking vegetables or meat with a little fat. First it is seared and then simmered with additional liquid, in a covered pan.
Flour made of wheat with a fairly high gluten content (13-14%), typically used for making bread products.
Slashing along loaves so that they can expand as they bake.
Whole grain rice that has been unpolished. It is the healthiest type, since only the husk has been removed.
Cane sugar that has some or all of its natural molasses.
Butter that has been heated until browning starts and then cooled.
Cream that has been churned into a semi-solid form.
A common type of frosting, made by combining a type of fat with sugar.
The tree with the seed pods that are used to make cocoa power and cocoa butter.
A flour made from soft wheat that has been finely milled with a low protein content (6-8%). Used for making cakes.
When a yeast loaf is under-proofed and the interior pushes the crust up to form a “cap” along the sides.
Heating until sugars on the surface of a food break down to form a brown coating that may be either sweet or savory.
When food continues to cook after it’s been removed from heat.
Grains and foods that are derived from them.
The French term for a starter, made from a small piece of leavened bread.
A kind of leavening that reacts with substances in order to produce carbon dioxide so dough can rise.
To cool a mixture or bowl by putting it in ice or a refrigerator.
To use a sharp object, such as a knife, to cut something into small pieces.
To make a substance pure or clear.
To cover a food thoroughly with a mixture, either liquid or dry.
The thickness of a liquid, usually when it is viscous enough to stick to a spoon without immediately draining off of it.
The edible fat that is extracted from cacao beans.
Powder made from cacao beans. It can be treated with alkalis in order to neutralize the natural acidity of cocoa.
To mix ingredients together.
Very finely ground white sugar that dissolves easily and is often used for candy making, frosting, icing, and decorating desserts, such as cakes.
To let food sit after baking until it is no longer warm to the touch.
A grid of thick wire that can stand over a flat surface that is used to cool baked goods on after they come out of the oven.
A container made out of a triangle, usually of parchment paper, that is used to pipe out icing or chocolate.
Flour that is made from whole corn, sometimes called cornstarch.
Dried corn kernels that have been ground into a meal that can be with fine, medium, or coarse.
The French word for a canvas cloth that is used to raise baguettes on.
Fruit that has been pureed in order to make a dessert sauce.
To mix dry ingredients with a solid fat so as to incorporate air until it is creamy in consistency.
The technique of pinching the sides and/or tops of pie or tart crusts.
The interior texture of bread and other baked goods that varies depending on its hydration. The
lower the hydration, the denser the crumb.
To mix butter or shortening into flour by using a knife or cutter. This is also referred to as rubbing
The temperature for food safety, at which perishable food shouldn’t be left out in for over 2 hours.
Removing germ from a grain kernel, leaving the bran and endosperm behind.
To thin a liquid by adding in another solvent, such as water.
To add an ingredient to a liquid in order to form a mixture or solution, until the solid elements are no longer remaining.
To concentrate or purify through a process involving heating and condensation.
To portion a dough or batter prior to shaping or panning. This is also referred to as scaling for equal portions.
To poke small holes into dough in order to allow for trapped air and steam to escape during the baking process.
A mixture of flour and liquids, and potentially other ingredients, that is thick enough to be handled, shaped, and kneaded.
A mixture of dry ingredients that helps dough rise and have a softer texture, as well as extend a loaf’s shelf life.
To coat one ingredient with another dry ingredient, either before or after cooking, such as with powdered sugar or flour.
To pour a thin stream of a liquid, such as icing, on top of something.
To sprinkle with a powder, such as powdered sugar
The section of dough that bakes out of a blooming section of a loaf.
A mixture made of either the whole egg or parts of the egg and water or milk that is brushed onto the unbaked surface of a baked good in order to make the crust glossy or a rich color.
2 or more homogenous liquids that don’t easily mix.
The protein center of a grain that forms starch and gluten and is the largest part of a grain kernel.
To either improve or restore nutrients to a refined grain product, such as enriched flour.
An artificial substance that is cheaper and less potent than an extract.
A natural substance that has been extracted from its source, such as vanilla straight from a
The process during which yeast consumes starches and sugars in dough to produce carbon dioxide that expands the dough and alcohol.
This refers to a stage in the whipping process when the peaks hold their shape moreso than soft peaks and that have more distinct edges.
The temperature at which oil ignites if it comes in contact with a flame.
A mixture of yeast and water and potentially sugar that actively grows and expands.
To gently combine substances together in order to not deflate the texture. It is usually done with a whisk or spatula with dry to liquid ingredients.
A coating made of powdered sugar, powdered gelatin, water, and more, often used for cakes.
To cook in heated fat.
A kind of frosting that is made out of heavy cream and melted chocolate.
To decorate a food by adding other foodstuffs, such as mint leaves, to either the food itself or the serving dish.
A stabilizing agent made of collagen, used to gelatinize a food.
The chemical process during which starches expand and absorb water when heated.
The embryo of a cereal grain’s seed, it contains fats, nutrients, and proteins.
Clarified butter that has had lactose and milk solids removed. It does not need to be refrigerated and can be used in any kind of cooking.
To coat with a thick sauce to make shiny, such as with butter.
Proteins within flour that gives texture and structure to baked goods.
Ingredients or baked/cooked goods that do not contain gluten. Gluten-free bread, for example, is not made with wheat flour, but rather, other flours, such as coconut flour.
Glycemic Index (GI):
This refers to the index of how much gluten is present in blood after eating carbohydrates. Foods typically have a GI rating between 0 and 100, but depending on the person and their body’s level of alpha-amylase levels, their body and blood sugar will react differently to the same foods.
Very high quality ingredients or food, usually prepared with great skill and presented in an artful manner.
These can refer to 2 things:
- When referring to cereal grains, it means the grain or edible seeds that are produced by
plants, such as rice, corn, millet, wheat, wild rice, and more, within the grass family.
- The crumb of baked goods. As mentioned in the Crumb definition, this means the
thickness, structure, and amount of air pockets within the product.
To rub a food against a grater in order to turn it into small pieces.
To rub butter, oil, fat, or shortening against the surface of a cooking pan, sheet, or utensil, in order to prevent food from sticking to it, or also on a food.
This refers to types of wheat that have a high protein content (10-12%), for hard winter wheat, and (10-15%) for hard spring wheat.
When adjustments will be needed for ingredients and oven temperatures at altitudes over 3500 feet.
To keep a baked good or product within the best possible environment for long-term storage or for the best quality serving.
This is either:
- To sharpen a blade or other utensil
- A device used to sharpen blades and other cutting tools
This is either:
- The outer layer of a grain, such as corn.
- To remove the hull, also called “dehulling”
The amount of moisture in the air needed when making bread.
The ratio of water to the flour within bread. Different hydration rates result in different
To add a substance to another so that they are mixed together.
A cooktop heating method where the vessel is heated by electromagnetism. The vessels need to be either partially or entirely made of iron for this to work.
To soak or steep or immerse something within a liquid so as to extract the flavors.
Anything that is added to a mixture, liquid, solid, etc.
A type of yeast that can be added directly to other dry ingredients so that the bread will only need a single rise. It has smaller granules and more live cells than active dry yeast.
Salt that has sodium iodide added to it in order to prevent hypothyroidism.
To cut and either squeeze or press a fruit or vegetable in order to extract the juice.
To manipulate a dough with a pressing and folding motion, either by hand or with a dough hook so as to make it smooth and elastic, as well as to help the gluten develop when used in making bread.
Salt without additives and that has coarse grains that some bakers and Jewish Kosher food processors prefer.
To alternate layers of dough and butter, so as to assist in letting steam out and making a light, airy texture, as is commonly found in croissants and similar pastries.
This refers to:
- An agent, such as yeast, that is used to expand dough so that it rises.
- To add a leavening agent to a dough.
Also known as a sourdough bread starter, this is a fermented mix of water and flour that has yet to be added to the main dough.
Neither hot nor cold, but slightly warm.
When the texture of a mixture, substance, or dough has lumps and isn’t smooth.
To soften a food by soaking it in a liquid.
To shape dough, such as into loaves. This includes the processes of scaling, molding, and panning.
A butter substitute, made out of vegetable oil and other liquids.
A sweetened almond paste, commonly used to make candy figurines.
A double- or triple-cream cheese that has at a minimum, 60-75% of milkfat.
To press in order to break down into smoother and/or finer pieces/consistency.
When the taste of a food has fully developed for optimal flavor.
Grain that has been coarsely ground down. It is coarser than flour, but finer than cracked grain.
To heat a solid food, such as chocolate, until it becomes a liquid.
A mixture of sugar and beaten egg whites, it can be either soft or baked hard.
A finely ground flour that is naturally gluten-free. It is good for both sweet and savory baked goods. It usually needs a binder for structure.
To chop something into very small, fine pieces.
To combine substances together.
When dough is flattened and/or shaped into loaves or rolls or braids or twists.
The mixing technique where dry and liquid ingredients are combined.
Any flour, cereal, meal, or grain that uses 2 or more grains.
An ingredient that is indigenous to a particular region, such as how a black walnut is nature to North America.
Also known as “batter breads”, this refers to breads with yeast that do not require kneading.
When a pan or sheet has a substance on it that keeps food from sticking to it.
The outermost layer of an oat grain kernel that is edible and high in soluble fiber.
Fats that can come from either plants or animals. Common cooking oils include: almond, avocado, canola, coconut, flax, hazelnut, hemp, olive, palm, safflower, sesame, and sunflower.
This refers to the “growth spurt” that yeast breads undergo until they hold their final shape and size.
This refers to when dough has been left to ferment for too long and won’t spring back and likely
won’t dense when baked.
To place dough in or on pans that are ready for baking, such as with parchment or greasing.
To boil for a short amount of time in order to cook slightly.
This refers to either:
- Parchment paper, a disposable, non-stick paper that is used to keep baked goods from
sticking to a baking sheet or stone.
- The rind/outer skin of a food like an orange.
To remove the parchment/rind/outer skin of vegetables or fruits with a peeler or knife.
A soft flour made of wheat with a 9-10% gluten content, commonly used for pastries.
Often used to make jellies and fruit preserves, this is a natural sugar that works as a thickening agent.
This refers to either:
- The rind or outer layer of a food, such as an orange.
- To remove said outer layer.
To press together with your fingers, such at the edges of a pie crust.
This is the process of making decorations and borders with icing, such as from a pastry bag.
This refers to either:
- To divide a dough or batter, such as to put in separate baking pans.
- How much a serving per person is.
A dough or batter that has been already fermented and is added to a dough to help it leaven.
To heat the oven to the desired temperature needed in order to bake the product properly.
To let dough rise/the yeast in a dough activate.
When thin pieces of sugar have been pulled and then cooled quickly so that they maintain a satiny-type sheen.
To deflate risen dough in order to release built-up gasses so that it can be more easily kneaded and shaped.
To mash or process cooked vegetables or fruits until they form a smooth, thick liquid.
Bread that doesn’t need rising or kneading, so it is quick to make. It is usually chemically
leavened, but sometimes uses fast-rising yeast.
A type of grain that has all essential amino acids and is considered a complete protein.
When fats, oils, or nuts have spoiled and have a bad taste and/or smell.
How much of one thing there is in comparison to another, such as the ratio of water to flour in a
Food that has not been cooked, or is under a certain temperature. Liquids that are under 118 degrees Fahrenheit and dry foods that are kept under 150 degrees Fahrenheit are considered
To restore to a former condition by adding water, such as with dried vegetables.
To thicken/reduce the amount of liquid by simmering or boiling, often done in order to intensifythe flavor.
To let starches accord liquid and gluten relax. Letting dough or batter rest makes it easier to shape.
To chill dough in order to slow the fermentation process down, usually done to increase color and flavor.
When a mixture is thick enough to leave ribbons when the dough is lifted.
When the dough increases in volume as the leavening agent causes the gas bubbles to expand.
This refers to either:
- A small sweet or savory bread that has been smoothed and rounded.
- To use a rolling pin in order to roll out dough so that it is flat and even, typically done in
order to prep the dough for cookie cutting.
To add a hard fat, like cold butter, into flour by rubbing them together with your hands until the mixture has a similar consistency and texture to breadcrumbs.
The amount of salt in a liquid, food, or product.
To pull and fold sugar that has been cooked so as to make it pliable, called thus because it gives it a satin-like finish.
To cook by frying slightly over high heat, usually in a fat like butter or oil in an open and shallow pan, usually done to enhance flavor.
To heat liquids until they are almost boiling. Indicated by when small bubbles form around the edges of the pot or pan.
To divide dough or batter by weight before placing it in a pan, for more accurate portioning.
To slash the surface of a food, such as a bread loaf, so that it can open up when it bakes. It can often be done as a means of decoration, in addition to functionality.
A type of baking that requires a recipe and uses basic ingredients, such as flour, butter, and sugar, rather than using a mix.
When water is added to molten chocolate and the liquid cocoa butter is separated from the cocoa particles and sugar that absorb the water.
Different from all-purpose flour, this is a blend of baking powder, salt, and low-protein flour.
To remove the egg yolk from the white.
How long a product can be used for while remaining fit for consumption.
The fat that is added to a baking recipe; it can be butter, margarine, or another type.
To move dry ingredients, like flour, through a shifter (a sieve) to as to remove lumps, uneven particles, and to incorporate air.
To bring a liquid to a temperature just below its boiling point and allowing it to bubble calmly.
To remove a substance from the surface of a liquid, such as from milk.
Dough that is under-developed and has too much water or not enough flour.
To mix a powder with liquid so as to form a paste that can then be added to a greater amount of liquid without forming any lumps.
The mix of cold liquid with a raw starch, usually flour and water, and is added to thicken sauces or soups.
Butter that has been left at room temperature, so it is neither hard nor liquidated.
When sugar forms pliable, hard threads that can bend before they break, often used for taffies.
When egg whites or cream has been whipped so that peaks form, that will bend to the side.
Wheat that has a lower protein or gluten strength, which is ideal for cookies, quick breads, and more.
A type of pre-frement used for 2 step dough processes. The sponge is made of yeast, flour, and some water, and is allowed to ferment before it is added to the other ingredients.
To scatter sugar or another topping over the top of a baked good, such as powdered sugar over a pastry.
To set, to make a mixture resistant to changes in either positioning or condition.
To cook with steam, either with or without pressure, such as with dumplings.
When peaks that form during whipping do not bend but remain upright.
To mix with a whisk or spoon in order to blend or ensure ingredients are cooked evenly.
To separate the solids from liquids.
The composition of a baked good.
A carbohydrate that naturally occurs in fruits and vegetables and is most commonly used to sweeten baked goods or dishes. There are several different types: brown sugar, demerara sugar, granulated sugar, muscovado sugar, powdered sugar, raw sugar, and more.
To raise the temperature gradually, such as with chocolate and eggs.
To make a liquid or mixture denser by adding another ingredient, such as flour or egg yolks.
To mix by lifting and dropping ingredients, such as with salads.
When there is a big air gap between the crumb and the crust of a loaf that typically results after the dough has been left to rise for too long.
To turn strands in opposite directions.
Flour that has not been bleached by chemicals.
When shaped dough doesn’t reach the desired volume or height prior to baking.
When baked goods do not use leavening agents, such as yeast.
Ingredients that increase the value of a baked good, either nutritionally or in market or consumer value.
An opening that lets steam escape a food as it escapes, such as in the top of a pie crust.
Flour made from any type of wheat grains.
To beat rapidly and lightly in order to increase the volume and add air to a mixture.
To beat ingredients together so that they blend.
Flour that has had everything removed except for the grain’s endosperm in order to extend its shield life and give it a whiter color.
Grains with the bran, endosperm, and germ still intact. It may or may not still have the hull.
Whole Wheat Flour:
Flour that is made from the entire kernel of a wheat grain.
XXX or XXXX Confectioners Sugar:
How fine powdered sugar is. XXXX confectioners sugar is slightly finer than XXX confectioners sugar.
A substitute for gluten used in baking.
A microorganism that is used for organic leavening, as its carbon dioxide release expands dough and makes it rise. There are many different types of yeast, such as: baking yeast, active dry yeast, instant yeast, cake yeast, and wild yeast.
How many baked goods that one episode gives.
To flavor a baked food with a shaved peel of a citrus fruit.